Smoke Detectors During Construction
by Brad Keyes, CHSP, on Nov 13, 2019 12:00:37 AM
Q: We are seeking to eliminate accidental activation of existing smoke heads in healthcare spaces that are taken over for renovation/construction work while maintaining fire protection coverage in the space that does not involve the use of a fire watch. We are looking at multiple sensor detectors, but the initial comment we received from our vendor is that they are sometimes triggered by dust. In your opinion, would changing the smoke detectors to heat detectors be an acceptable solution in a construction space? If the space has an active sprinkler system, in your opinion, would it be acceptable to simply remove these smoke heads? Any thoughts you can provide would be greatly appreciated.
A: Changing the smokes to heats is not an acceptable solution to prevent a fire watch, because heats do not sense the presence of smoke. But perhaps you are making this more difficult than it has to be. The code only requires a fire watch for required fire alarm devices that are impaired. Are the smoke detectors in the construction area required? If so, then you need to do the fire watch if you remove the detectors, or suffer through many false alarms.
But if they are not required devices, then you can remove the smoke detectors and not have to do a fire watch. Section 18.104.22.168 of the 2012 LSC specifically says a fire watch is for required fire alarm systems out of service.
One may be surprised to learn that in the typical hospital, there are very few locations that a smoke detector is required to be installed:
- In areas open to the corridor as described in section 22.214.171.124 of the 2012 LSC
- In areas containing fire alarm control panels (including NAC panels) that are not continuously occupied as described in 126.96.36.199.1 of the 2012 LSC
- Near doors that are held open that must close on a fire alarm activation as described in NFPA 72-2010, section 188.8.131.52.5.1
- Elevator recall for fire-fighter's service as described in NFPA 72-2010, section 21.3
There are other situations where smoke detectors may be required, but those requirements are stipulated on optional design factors, such as on-call sleeping rooms, specialized protective measure locks, and equivalencies.
Therefore, if you have smoke detectors in an area that is under construction, and these smoke detectors are not required, then you may remove the detectors without having to perform a fire watch.